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ScnTO's Very Own Last Chance Thread

Discussion in 'News and Current Events' started by DeathHamster, May 15, 2011.

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  1. Anonymous Member

    Enough with the derail, I want ScnTO's pearls of wisdom.

    Please, ScnTO, continue.
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  2. Anonymous Member

  3. Anonymous Member

  4. Anonymous Member

  5. Anonymous Member

    ScnTO, if you come to me, I won't cut out your best posts and put them in a generic derail thread.

    Of course, since I'm not actually a mod, I'm just lying to your face.
  6. Anonymous Member

    • Like Like x 1
  7. Anonymous Member

  8. ScnTO Member

    Nothing in Dianetics and Scientology is true for you
    Unless you have observed it
    And it is true according to your observation.
    That is all.
    • Like Like x 1
  9. Anonymous Member

  10. Anonymous Member

    http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/neurok.html


    Neuroscience For Kids

    home


    The smell of a flower - The memory of a walk in the park - The pain of stepping on a nail. These experiences are made possible by the 3 pounds of tissue in our heads...the BRAIN!!
    Neuroscience for Kids has been created for all students and teachers who would like to learn about the nervous system.
    mainh.gif Discover the exciting world of the brain, spinal cord, neurons and the senses. Use the experiments, activities and games to help you learn about the nervous system. There are plenty of links to other web sites for you to explore.
    tvbrain2.gif Can't find what you are looking for? Search the web site and the questions/answers page. Keep up-to-date on new discoveries in brain research with Neuroscience in the News, request the Neuroscience for Kids Newsletter or watch BrainWorks, a 30-minute TV show about the brain hosted by Dr. Eric H. Chudler. maini.gif
    Portions of Neuroscience for Kids are available in Spanish, Slovene, Chinese, Portuguese, Italian, Korean, Dutch, Telugu, Japanese and Turkish.
    globe3.gif "Neuroscience for Kids" is maintained by Eric H. Chudler, Ph.D. and was supported by a Science Education Partnership Award (R25 RR12312) from the National Center for Research Resources (NCRR). Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of NCRR or NIH.
    Last updated May 25, 2011

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  11. Anonymous Member

  12. Anonymous Member

    sword_swallowing_x-ray-1.jpg sword_swallowing_x-ray-1.jpg sword_swallowing_x-ray-1.jpg sword_swallowing_x-ray-1.jpg sword_swallowing_x-ray-1.jpg sword_swallowing_x-ray-1.jpg
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  13. Anonymous Member

    Neuroscience For Kids

    The Hows, Whats and Whos of Neuroscience

    whatban.gif
    The Whats

    quest1.gif neuron3.gif
    What is a neuron?

    A neuron is a nerve cell. The brain is made up of approximately 100 billion neurons.
    Neurons are similar to other cells in the body in some ways such as:
    • Neurons are surrounded by a membrane.
    • Neurons have a nucleus that contains genes.
    • Neurons contain cytoplasm, mitochondria and other "organelles".
    However, neurons differ from other cells in the body in some ways such as:
    • Neurons have specialized projections called dendrites and axons. Dendrites bring information to the cell body and axons take information away from thecell body.
    • Neurons communicate with each other through an electrochemical process.
    • Neurons form specialized connections called "synapses" and produce special chemicals called "neurotransmitters" that are released at the synapse.
    There are approximately 1 quadrillion synapses in the human brain. That's 1,000,000,000,000,000 synapses! This is equal to about a half-billion synapses per cubic millimeter. (Statistic from Changeux, J-P. and Ricoeur, P., What Makes Us Think?, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000, p. 78)
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  14. Anonymous Member

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  15. BrakTalk Member

    First, it doesn't store recordings of every minute of every day. It has a limited capacity. Information is sorted by importance, unimportant events are forgotten forever and cannot be recalled no matter how hard you try. Where does it store them? In itself... where the hell else?! Where does your computer store your files? On the hard drive, or in the ether?
  16. Anonymous Member

    The Hows

    quest1.gif How big is the brain? How much does the brain weigh?
    wisbrain.gif The adult human brain weighs between 1300 g and 1400 g (approximately 3 lbs). A newborn human brain weighs between 350 and 400 g. For comparison:
    elephant brain = 6,000 g
    chimpanzee brain = 420 g
    rhesus monkey brain = 95 g
    beagle dog brain = 72 g
    cat brain = 30 g
    rat brain = 2 g
    More Brain Weights
  17. Anonymous Member

  18. Anonymous Member

    Weights
    quest1.gif How many neurons (nerve cells) are in the brain? How big are they?
    There are approximately 100 billion (100,000,000,000) neurons in the human brain. To get an idea of how many 100 billion is, think of this:
    Assume that you were going to count all 100 billion cells at a rate of 1 cell per second. How long would it take you to count all 100 billion cells? My calculations say it would take about 3,171 years!. Do the math yourself. (Here is a hint on the math: there are 60 seconds in a minute; 60 minutes in an hour; 24 hours in a day; 365 days in a year.) By the way, my calculations did NOT take "leap years" into account. Actually, it would probably take a lot longer than 3,171 years because it takes more than 1 second to say the large numbers.
    Here is another way to think of 100 billion:
    Assume the cell body of one neuron is 10 microns wide (this is just an assumption because neurons come in many different sizes. However, 10 microns is small; smaller than the period at the end of this sentence). Ok...if you were able to line up all 100 billion neurons in a straight line, how long would your line be? Check my math!!
    neuron2.gif 1 neuron = 10 microns wide
    10 neurons = 100 microns wide
    100 neurons = 1000 microns wide = 1 mm wide
    1,000 neurons = 10 mm wide = 1 cm wide
    100,000 neurons = 100 cm wide = 1 m wide
    100,000,000 neurons = 1000 m = 1 km
    10,000,000,000 neurons = 100 km
    100,000,000,000 neurons = 1000 km (approximately 600 miles)
    Although all the neurons lined up side by side would stretch 1000 km, the line would be only 10 microns wide...invisible to the naked eye!!!
    To get an idea of how small a neuron is, let's do some more math:
    The dot on top of this "i" is approximately 0.5 mm (500 microns or 0.02 in) in diameter. Therefore, if you assume a neuron is 10 microns in diameter, you could squeeze in 50 neurons side-by-side across the dot. However, you could squeeze in only 5 large (100 micron diameter) neurons.
  19. Anonymous Member

  20. Anonymous Member

    quest1.gif How long is a neuron?
    Some neurons are very short...less than a millimeter in length. Some neurons are very long...a meter or more! The axon of a motor neuron in the spinal cord that innervates a muscle in the foot can be about 1 meter (3 feet) in length.
    bigcns.gif Think about how long the axon of a motor neuron would be if you wanted to make a model of it. The cell body of a motor neuron is approximately 100 microns (0.1 millimeter) in diameter and as you now know, the axon is about 1 meter (1,000 millimeter) in length. So, the axon of a motor neuron is 10,000 times as long as the cell body is wide. If you use a ping-pong ball (diameter = ~3.8 cm or 1.5 inch) to model the cell body, your axon would have to be 38,000 cm (380 meters) or 1,247 feet in length. If you use a basketball (diameter = ~24 cm or 9.5 inch) as the cell body, then your axon would have to be 240,000 cm (2.4 kilometers) or 7874 ft (1.49 miles) in length!
  21. Anonymous Member

  22. Anonymous Member

    quest1.gif How big is the brain compared to the rest of the body?
    If you assume the average person is 150 pounds and the average brain weighs 3 lbs., then the brain is 2% of the total body weight.
    quest1.gif How long is the spinal cord and how much does it weigh?
    The average spinal cord is 45 cm long in men and 43 cm long in women. The spinal cord weighs approximately 35 g.
    quest1.gif How fast does information travel in the nervous system?
    Information travels at different speeds within different types of neurons. Transmission can be as slow as 0.5 meters/sec or as fast as 120 meters/sec. Traveling at 120 meters/sec is the same as going 268 miles/hr!!! Check the math out yourself. More about the speed of signals in the nervous system.
  23. Anonymous Member

    More Whats and some Whos, Whys and Hows

    quest1.gif What do neuroscientists study?
    Perhaps, the best way to describe what neuroscientists study is to list the "levels" at which experiments can be done:
    1. Behavioral Level: study of the neural basis of behavior. In other words, what causes people and animals to do the things they do.
    2. System Level: study of the various parts of the nervous system like the visual or auditory system. This could also include investigations of what parts of the brain are connected to other parts.
    3. Local Circuit Level: study the function of groups of neurons (nerve cells).
    4. Single Neuron Level: study what individual neurons do in relation to some "event." Also, could study what is contained within a single neuron (neurotransmitter studies).
    5. Synapse Level: study what happens at the synapse.
    6. Membrane Level: study what happens at ion channels on a neuronal membrane.
    7. Genetic Level: study the genetic basis of neuronal function.
    quest1.gif How do you become a neuroscientist? How long do you have to go to school? m_bord2.gif
    1. First, you have to finish high school...so from 1st to 12th grade is 12 years.
    2. Second, you get a university degree...at least another 4 years of school.
    3. Third, you go to either graduate school for a Ph.D. degree or go to medical school for an M.D. degree...at least another 4 years of education.
    Let's add up what we have so far -- 12 yrs + 4 yrs + 4 yrs = 20 yrs
    That's 20 yrs. of school. While you are in graduate school or medical school you can call yourself a neuroscientist in training. After you get your Ph.D. or M.D. you can call yourself a "neuroscientist." Some people go back to school and get another degree so they have both a Ph.D. and an M.D. degree. Most people continue their training in a different laboratory after they get their Ph.D. or M.D. degree. This period of time is called Postdoctoral Training and neuroscientists learn new methods and techniques. This usually lasts 2-4 years. It is the hope of most neuroscientists that they can get jobs at a university, hospital or company after their postdoctoral training period. To find out more about becoming a neuroscientist, read Another Day, Another Neuron, a short essay I wrote for the Genentech Access Excellence Web site.
    quest1.gif Ok, so after all this school and training, what kind of jobs are available?
    employme.gif Jobs in Neuroscience
  24. Anonymous Member

  25. ScnTO Member

    The matter of the brain is 70% fat
    • Like Like x 1
  26. Anonymous Member

    quest1.gif Why do neuroscientists do what they do?
    Different neuroscientists have different reasons for getting into their careers. However, I am sure that some scientists are motivated by their curiosity to learn more about the brain. Neuroscientists would also like to find treatments and cures for the diseases that affect the nervous system. Neurological illnesses affect more than 50 million Americans each year - this costs billions of dollars each year. Here is more information on some of the major nervous system diseases (from Brain Facts, Society for Neuroscience and other sources including The American Academy of Neurology)
    Major Nervous System Diseases



    Disease Number of Cases Cost per year
    Chronic Pain 97,000,000 $100 billion
    Hearing Loss 28,000,000 $56 billion
    Depression Disorders 20,500,000 $44 billion
    Alzheimer's Disease 4,500,000 $100 billion
    Stroke 4,700,000 $51 billion
    Epilepsy 2,500,000 $3.5 billion
    Traumatic Head Injury 5,000,000 $56.3 billion
    Huntington's Disease 30,000 $2 billion
    Schizophrenia 2,000,000 $32.5 billion
    Parkinson's Disease 1,000,000 to 2,000,000 $25 billion
    Multiple Sclerosis 2,500,000 $9.5 billion
    Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury 250,000 $10 billion
    quest1.gif Who was the first neuroscientist?
    Hmmm....I don't think anyone really knows the answer to this one. Here is my opinion. Some skulls that are at least 10,000 years old have unusual holes in them. Scientists believe that these holes were put there intentionally to "let out the bad spirits." This implies that these people had some belief that the head or brain had some importance for health and well-being. Perhaps these people could be considered the first neuroscientists.
    papyprb.jpg The first recorded use of the word "brain" belongs to the ancient Egyptians. The word for "brain" and other "neuro" words appear in the Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus which was written by an unknown Egyptian surgeon around 1,700 BC.
    Socrates (469-399 B.C.) and Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) were early "thinkers" who wrote about the brain and mind. However, Aristotle believed that the heart, not the brain, was important for intelligence. Galen (129-199) was another early neuroscientist. Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), who came along much later, also could be thought of as a neuroscientist. If you are interested in more about the history of the Neurosciences, try Milestones in Neuroscience Research.
  27. Natter Bored Member

    Flunk for quoting LRH without giving credit to the drug addled bullshitter.

    Nothing in Dianetics and Scientology is true for you
    Except the parts you desperately paid to believe.

    And it is true in accordance with the amount of money you paid.

    That is all, until next week ending, when larger donations are extracted, either willingly or unwillingly.

    Ron is the greatest. DM is his prophet. Idle Orgs are the Devil's workshop.

    Hip, hip, hooray!
    Hip, hip, hooray!
    Hip, hip, hooray!
  28. Anonymous Member

  29. Anonymous Member

    quest1.gif How many research papers about the brain are published each year?
    For 2009, a PubMed search using the term "brain" shows that 58,459 papers were published.
    For 2008, a PubMed search using the term "brain" shows that 55,874 papers were published.
    For 2007, a PubMed search using the term "brain" shows that 53,258 papers were published.
    For 2006, a PubMed search using the term "brain" shows that 51,163 papers were published.
    For 2005, a PubMed search using the term "brain" shows that 47,383 papers were published.
    For 2004, a PubMed search using the term "brain" shows that 42,849 papers were published.
    For 2003, a PubMed search using the term "brain" shows that 39,964 papers were published.
    For 2002, a PubMed search using the term "brain" shows that 37,304 papers were published.
    For 2001, a PubMed search using the term "brain" shows that 36,884 papers were published.
    For 2000, a PubMed search using the term "brain" shows that 37,000 papers were published.
    For 1999, a PubMed search using the term "brain" shows that 34,828 papers were published.
    For 1998, a PubMed search using the term "brain" shows that 33,027 papers were published.
    For 1997, a PubMed search using the term "brain" shows that 32,112 papers were published.
    For 1996, a PubMed search using the term "brain" shows that 31,040 papers were published.
    quest1.gif What are some of the methods and techniques used by neuroscientists?
    You want methods? Here they are.
  30. Anonymous Member

    KeyBNPS0402_468x537.jpg
  31. Anonymous Member

  32. Anonymous Member

    Stop using dox.

    Scientology is based on observable belief.

    Beliefs which I observe are true, and you darn haters can't distract from the true belief.
  33. Anonymous Member

    Neuroscience For Kids

    divisions of the nervous system

    ec.gif table of contents

    Neuroanatomy: the structure of the nervous system. To learn how the nervous system functions, you must learn how the nervous system is put together. heabrain.gif
    The nervous system can be divided into several connected systems that function together. Let's start with a simple division:
    The nervous system is divided into the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system.
    Let's break the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system into more parts.
    Central Nervous System

    spiback1.gif The central nervous system is divided into two parts: the brain and the spinal cord. The average brainwig.gif adult human brain weighs 1.3 to 1.4 kg (approximately 3 pounds). The brain contains about 100 billion nerve cells (neurons) and trillons of "support cells" called glia. The spinal cord is about 43 cm long in adult women and 45 cm long in adult men and weighs about 35-40 grams. The vertebral column, the collection of bones (back bone) that houses the spinal cord, is about 70 cm long. Therefore, the spinal cord is much shorter than the vertebral column.
    For brain weights of other animals, see brain facts and figures.



    Did you know?
    stego.gif A stegosaurus dinosaur weighed approximately 1,600 kg but had a brain that weighed only approximately 70 grams (0.07 kg). Therefore, the brain was only 0.004% of its total body weight. In contrast, an adult human weighs approximately 70 kg and has a brain that weighs approximately 1.4 kg. Therefore, the human brain is about 2% of the total body weight. This makes the brain to body ratio of the human 500 times greater than that of the stegosaurus. See "My Brain is Bigger than Your Brain" for more about brain size.
  34. Anonymous Member

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  35. Anonymous Member

    Peripheral Nervous System

    The peripheral nervous system is divided into two major parts: the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.
    Somatic Nervous System

    somns.gif The somatic nervous system consists of peripheral nerve fibers that send sensory information to the central nervous system AND motor nerve fibers that project to skeletal muscle.
    The picture on the left shows the somatic motor system. The cell body is located in either the brain or spinal cord and projects directly to a skeletal muscle.
    Autonomic Nervous System

    autons.gif The autonomic nervous system is divided into three parts: the sympathetic nervous system, the parasympathetic nervous system and the enteric nervous system. The autonomic nervous system controls smooth muscle of the viscera (internal organs) and glands.
    This picture shows the general organization of the autonomic nervous system. The preganglionic neuron is located in either the brain or the spinal cord. This preganglionic neuron projects to an autonomic ganglion. The postganglionic neuron then projects to the target organ. Notice that the somatic nervous system has only one neuron between the central nervous system and the target organ while the autonomic nervous system uses two neurons.
    viscera.gif
    The enteric nervous system is a third division of the autonomic nervous system that you do not hear much about. The enteric nervous system is a meshwork of nerve fibers that innervate the viscera (gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, gall bladder).
    The following table shows how the nervous system can be divided. The bottom row of the table contains the names of specific areas within the brain.
    nsdivide.gif
  36. Anonymous Member

  37. Anonymous Member

    Divisions of the Nervous System
    telout.gif Telencephalon diout.gif Diencephalon mesout.gif Mesencephalon
    meout.gif Metencephalon myout.gif Myelencephalon clear.gif



    ear2.gif HEAR IT! Click on a word to hear how it is pronounced. These are "wav" files.
    Amygdala | Basal Ganglia | Cerebellum | Cerebral Cortex | Corpus Callosum
    Diencephalon | Hippocampus | Hypothalamus | Medulla | Mesencephalon
    Metencephalon | Myelencephalon | Pons | Tectum
    Tegmentum | Telencephalon | Thalamus
    graysp.gif
    From a top view, notice how the brain is divided into two halves, called hemispheres. Each hemisphere communicates with the other through the corpus callosum, a bundle of nerve fibers. (Another smaller fiber bundle that connects the two hemispheres is called the anterior commissure).
    Some differences between the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and the central nervous system (CNS):
    1. In the CNS, collections of neurons are called nuclei. In the PNS, collections of neurons are called ganglia.
    2. In the CNS, collections of axons are called tracts. In the PNS, collections of axons are called nerves.
    In the peripheral nervous system, neurons can be functionally divided in three ways:
    1. Sensory (afferent) - carry information INTO the central nervous system from sense organs or motor (efferent) - carry information away from the central nervous system (for muscle control).
    2. Cranial - connects the brain with the periphery or spinal - connects the spinal cord with the periphery.
    3. Somatic - connects the skin or muscle with the central nervous system or visceral - connects the internal organs with the central nervous system.
  38. Anonymous Member

    Brain Structures

    Cerebral Cortex ideaman.gif
    Functions:
    • Thought
    • Voluntary movement
    • Language
    • Reasoning
    • Perception
    The word "cortex" comes from the Latin word for "bark" (of a tree). This is because the cortex is a sheet of tissue that makes up the outer layer of the brain. The thickness of the cerebral cortex varies from 2 to 6 mm. The right and left sides of the cerebral cortex are connected by a thick band of nerve fibers called the "corpus callosum." In higher mammals such as humans, the cerebral cortex looks like it has many bumps and grooves. A bump or bulge on the cortex is called a gyrus (the plural of the word gyrus is "gyri") and a groove is called a sulcus (the plural of the word sulcus is "sulci"). Lower mammals, such as rats and mice, have very few gyri and sulci.
    Cerebellum
    cereman.gif Functions:
    • Movement
    • Balance
    • Posture
    The word "cerebellum" comes from the Latin word for "little brain." The cerebellum is located behind the brain stem. In some ways, the cerebellum is similar to the cerebral cortex: the cerebellum is divided into hemispheres and has a cortex that surrounds these hemispheres.
    Brain stem
    Functions: heart4.gif
    • Breathing
    • Heart Rate
    • Blood Pressure
    The brain stem is a general term for the area of the brain between the thalamus and spinal cord. Structures within the brain stem include the medulla, pons, tectum, reticular formation and tegmentum. Some of these areas are responsible for the most basic functions of life such as breathing, heart rate and blood pressure.
    Hypothalamus
    Functions: thermo1.gif
    • Body Temperature
    • Emotions
    • Hunger
    • Thirst
    • Circadian Rhythms
    The hypothalamus is composed of several different areas and is located at the base of the brain. Although it is the size of only a pea (about 1/300 of the total brain weight), the hypothalamus is responsible for some very important functions. One important function of the hypothalamus is the control of body temperature. The hypothalamus acts as a "thermostat" by sensing changes in body temperature and then sending signals to adjust the temperature. For example, if you are too hot, the hypothalamus detects this and then sends a signal to expand the capillaries in your skin. This causes blood to be cooled faster. The hypothalamus also controls the pituitary.
    Thalamus
    Functions: arrowout.gif
    • Sensory processing
    • Movement
    The thalamus receives sensory information and relays this information to the cerebral cortex. The cerebral cortex also sends information to the thalamus which then transmits this information to other areas of the brain and spinal cord.
    Limbic System
    angman.gif Functions:
    • Emotions
    • Memory
    The limbic system (or the limbic areas) is a group of structures that includes the amygdala, the hippocampus, mammillary bodies and cingulate gyrus. These areas are important for controlling the emotional response to a given situation. The hippocampus is also important for memory.
    Hippocampus
    Functions: litbulb2.gif
    • Learning
    • Memory
    The hippocampus is one part of the limbic system that is important for memory and learning.
    Basal Ganglia
    Functions: movem.gif
    • Movement
    The basal ganglia are a group of structures, including the globus pallidus, caudate nucleus, subthalamic nucleus, putamen and substantia nigra, that are important in coordinating movement.
    Midbrain
    Functions: mideye.gif
    • Vision
    • Audition
    • Eye Movement
    • Body Movement
    The midbrain includes structures such as the superior and inferior colliculi and red nucleus. There are several other areas also in the midbrain.
    Now that you have read about the areas of the brain, take a look at where these areas are located:
    nsall.gif
    Check out the glossary for definitions of other brain areas.
    [IMG] Travel through the brain with the incredible Brain Fly-Through game. (Requires the FLASH plug-in for your browser.)



    Did you know?[IMG]
    John Adams (2nd President of the US) and his son, John Quincy Adams (6th President of the US), were both born in Braintree, Massachusetts.
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  39. Anonymous Member

    • Like Like x 1
  40. Anonymous Member

    brainf.gif Divisions of the Brain brainf.gif


    medhead.gif The brain can be separated into phylogenetic (through evolution) and embryological (through development) divisions. Below are two tables that show how the brain can be divided - do not get caught up in the terminology - these are just names for specific areas of the brain. "Divisions of the Nervous System" discusses the functions of many of these areas.

    bann01.gif


    Divisions of the Brain
    Major DivisionSubdivisionStructures
    Prosencephalon
    (Forebrain)TelencephalonNeocortex; Basal Ganglia; Amygdala; Hippocampus; Lateral Ventricles
    DiencephalonThalamus; Hypothalamus; Epithalamus; Third Ventricle
    Mesencephalon
    (Midbrain)MesencephalonTectum; Tegmentum; Cerebral Aqueduct
    Rhombencephalon
    (Hindbrain)MetencephalonCerebellum; Pons; Fourth Ventricle
    MyelencephalonMedulla Oblongata; Fourth Ventricle
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